The start of a Pentecostal revival among Gypsies came in 1952 when a French Manouche, Mandz Duvil, asked the Breton pastor Clement Le Cossec to baptize him and his partner. Duvil spread the news of his new faith among his family and friends. Two years later, the hundred or so converted Gypsies chose four of their number to be elders. Also in 1954, the first large convention was held in Brest. From 1960 the movement spread outside France to Germany, Spain, and most countries in Europe, as well as the United States. Along with the Manouche, who were the original converts, members of other Gypsy groups (Kalderash and Gitanos) also became converted. By 1982 it was estimated that 70,000 Gypsies had already been converted and rebaptized.
   The first contact with England came when an English Gypsy visited a convention of the Pentecostals in Montpellier, France, in 1954.
   The first convention in England was held in 1983 at Fox Hall Farm, Nottinghamshire, and the second-also in the Midlands - in 1984. Vie et Lumière is the organ of the movement. In 1995 the Romani-speakers (Kalderash and others) decided to form their own organization known as Centre Missionaire Évangélique Rom International.
   See also Life and Light.

Historical dictionary of the Gypsies . .

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